Ocean thermal energy conversion is the process of extracting energy from changes in temperature between ocean waters. The term “ocean thermal energy conversion” (OTEC) refers to either a method or a technology that generates energy by capitalizing on the temperature variations (thermal gradients) that exist between the waters at the surface of the ocean and the waters deep below it.
- The ocean’s surface water is warmed by the energy that comes from the sun.
- It is possible for the surface water to be considerably warmer than the deeper water in tropical climates.
- This differential in temperature has the potential to be utilized in the generation of power as well as in the desalination of ocean water.
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems generate electricity by using a temperature differential (of at least 20 degrees Celsius or 36 degrees Fahrenheit) to power a turbine. This temperature difference is used to power the turbine. In an evaporator that also contains a working fluid, warm surface water is circulated through it using a pump.
The fluid that has been vaporized turns a turbine that powers a generator. In a condenser that is cooled with cold ocean water pumped from deeper in the ocean, the vaporized fluid is converted back into a liquid so that it may be used. Desalination can be accomplished by the utilization of the condensed water in OTEC systems that employ saltwater as the working fluid.
System for the conversion of ocean thermal energy On the Kona Coast of Hawaii is an OTEC plant that is undergoing testing. The United States Department of Energy is the cited source (public domain) The year 1974 marked the beginning of the United States’ participation in the OTEC research endeavors, when the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii Authority was established.
The laboratory is widely regarded as one of the most advanced testing facilities in the world for OTEC technology. During the 1990s, the research facility ran a demonstration OTEC plant with a capacity of 250 kilowatts (kW) for a total of six years. The United States Navy provided funding for the construction of a demonstration OTEC plant with 105 kW of capacity at the site of the laboratory.
This plant began operating in 2015 and contributes to the maintenance of the regional electrical system by supplying electricity. Other, bigger OTEC systems are now being developed or planned in a number of different nations, most often to deliver desalinated water and energy to settlements located on islands.
- 0.1 How is ocean thermal energy stored?
- 0.2 What are the main types of ocean thermal energy conversion?
- 0.3 Is Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion renewable?
- 1 What is the byproduct of ocean thermal energy conversion?
- 2 How does ocean thermal energy affect the environment?
- 3 How much thermal energy is in the ocean?
How is ocean thermal energy stored?
Through a process known as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar energy that has been stored in the layers of the tropical and subtropical seas may be converted. Thermal heat engines take use of the disparity in temperature that exists between the sun-warmed water at the ocean’s top and the colder water found deeper below.
What does ocean thermal energy do?
Ocean thermal energy conversion, often known as OTEC, is a process that utilizes saltwater in order to convert solar energy into electrical energy. This method depends on the thermal gradient of the ocean, which is the gradual drop in temperature that occurs from the warmer waters near the ocean’s surface to the cooler waters found at greater depths.
- OTEC facilities take in warm and cold seawater via pipes and then circulate the water via heat exchangers and water condensers, which ultimately results in the spinning of turbines that produce energy.
- It is only possible to do so effectively in regions of the ocean when the temperature difference between the upper 1,000 meters and the lower 1,000 meters is greater than 20 degrees Celsius.
These conditions can be found in the vast majority of the planet’s tropical waters. The idea of using OTEC for power generation is really intriguing. Morning sunshine is both costless and endlessly replenishable. And according to certain estimates made by researchers, OTEC has the capability of producing billions of watts of power.
What are the main types of ocean thermal energy conversion?
Ocean thermal energy conversion, often known as OTEC, is a process that runs a heat engine by taking advantage of the temperature differential that exists between deep and shallow ocean water. Large quantities of water at a lower temperature are brought up from the depths of the ocean via pipes, while water at a higher temperature is taken into the OTEC plant from the top of the ocean.
- Even at the best sites, the difference in temperature between these two locations is only around 20 degrees Celsius, despite the fact that this temperature differential normally grows larger as one moves closer to the equator (Berger and Berger, 1986).
- This reduces the maximum theoretical efficiency to somewhere between 6 and 7 percent, which must then be decreased even more to account for the stresses that are placed on the pumping and plant operations in the actual world.
OTEC systems confront significant technical barriers in overcoming heat exchanger biofouling which affects efficiency, dissolved gas heat exchanger erosion when cold water is pulled up and difficulty in sustaining the very low pressures necessary in many systems.
- On the other hand, one of the primary advantages of OTEC systems is that its resource is not subject to intermittency, which means that these systems have the potential to be utilized in baseload power generation.
- Closed-cycle, open-cycle, and hybrid OTEC systems are the three distinct varieties available today.
Closed-cycle systems make use of the warm water that is found at the surface of the ocean in order to vaporize a working fluid that has a low boiling point, like ammonia. The rotating turbine is driven by the expanding vapour. In open-cycle systems, the saltwater is really brought to a boil by working at low pressures, and the boiled water is then sent through a turbine as part of a Rankine thermodynamic cycle.
Is Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion renewable?
Diagram of the OTEC and its Applications I am grateful to you, kind benefactor! Because to your generosity, Wikipedia is able to continue to thrive. You can choose to “hide appeals” to prevent this browser from displaying fundraising messages for one week, or you can return to the appeal to make a donation if you are still interested in doing so.
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To ensure our continued existence, all we ask for is $2, or anything else you can provide. We beg you, in all modesty, to refrain from scrolling away from this page. If you are one of our very few donors, please accept our sincere gratitude. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, often known as OTEC, is a process that makes use of the temperature difference between the deeper, colder waters of the ocean and the warmer, shallower or surface waters to power a heat engine that generates usable work, most commonly in the form of electricity.
- OTEC is able to function with a capacity factor that is extremely high, and as a result, it is able to function in base load mode.
- The denser cold water masses that are produced as a result of the interaction of ocean surface water with cold atmosphere in quite specific regions of the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean sink into the deep sea basins and are distributed throughout the entire deep ocean by the thermohaline circulation.
The replenishment of the upwelling of cold water from the depths of the ocean by the downwelling of cold water from the top of the sea is called the thermohaline circulation. OTEC is one of the constantly accessible renewable energy resources that might contribute to base-load power supply.
- This makes it one of the ocean energy sources that OTEC represents.
- It is generally agreed that the resource potential of OTEC is far greater than that of other types of ocean energy.
- Without having an impact on the thermal structure of the ocean, OTEC has the potential to generate up to 88,000 TWh /year of electricity.
Both open-cycle and closed-cycle configurations are possible for systems. Working fluids in a closed-cycle OTEC are often considered of as refrigerants, and some examples of these working fluids are ammonia and R-134a. As a result of their low boiling temperatures, these fluids are ideal for use in the system’s generator, which is responsible for the generation of energy.
The Rankine cycle, which makes use of a low-pressure turbine, is now the type of heat cycle that is utilized the most frequently in OTEC. The vapor that is produced by the saltwater itself is used by open-cycle engines as the operating fluid. As an additional by-product, OTEC is able to provide large volumes of cold water.
This can be put to use for things like air conditioning and refrigeration, and the water from the deep ocean, which is rich in nutrients, may be utilized to feed biological technology. Seawater that has been distilled into fresh water is an additional by-product.
What is the byproduct of ocean thermal energy conversion?
The topic of “Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion” is the focus of this collection of Multiple Choice Questions and Answers (MCQs) in the subject area of Applied Chemistry.1. The ocean thermal energy conversion, also known as OTEC, employs a) a difference in energy b) a difference in potential c) a difference in temperature d) a difference in kinetic energy Click Here to View the Answer The correct answer is c.
The ocean thermal energy conversion makes use of the difference in temperature between cold water and hot water in order to create electricity.2. The first prototype of OTEC is created in a) 1880 b) 1926 c) 1890 d) 1930 View Answer Answer: a 1880 is the year that sees the development of the Ocean thermal energy conversion.
It is the generation of electricity that serves as the base load.3. The OTEC was built in the years 1920, 1924, 1922, and 1926. a) 1920 b) 1924 c) 1922 d) 1926 View Answer Answer: d Explanation: Construction of the OTEC began in the year 1926. Both the pumping of sea water and the operation of the power cycle are handled by the OTEC facility.
- In the year 1880, it was first developed.4.
- The by-product of the conversion of the ocean’s thermal energy is a) Hot water b) Cold water c) Chemicals d) Gases The production of cold water is an unintended side effect of the conversion of thermal energy in the ocean, as shown in answer b.
- It is expected that there will be a significant supply of cold water available.5.
In the process of converting ocean heat into usable electricity, the plant draws from the icy depths of the ocean rather than the warmer waters of the top. a) True b) False View Answer Answer: b In order to generate electricity and operate a power cycle, the plant that uses ocean thermal energy conversion pumps a significant quantity of deep, cold sea water as well as surface sea water.6.
- How many different kinds of OTEC plants are there to choose from? a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 View Answer Answer: c There are three distinct categories of ocean thermal energy plants, as the following explanation will show.
- These are open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion, closed cycle ocean thermal energy conversion, and hybrid ocean thermal energy conversion systems.7.
The fluid must possess a: a) a high boiling point for closed cycle systems to utilise it b) A lower than average boiling point c) A very high viscosity d) a somewhat moderate viscosity To view the answer, click here Answer: b Explanation: A closed cycle system makes use of fluids that have low boiling points One of the liquids with a low boiling point is ammonia, which has a boiling point of -330 degrees Celsius and may be used to power a turbine that generates energy.8.
- To vaporize the liquid, warm water from the surface of the ocean is forced through an 8.
- a) Heat exchanger b) Generator c) Evaporator d) Condenser a) Heat exchanger b) Generator c) Evaporator To vaporize the fluid, warm surface sea water is injected via a heat exchanger.
- View Answer Answer: an Explanation: In order to generate power, the turbo generator is turned by the expanding vapour.9.
The heat exchanger transforms the gaseous byproduct into a liquid that may then be reused. a) Condenses b) Heats c) Cools d) Evaporates View Answer Answer: a The liquid that is produced as a result of the condensation of the vapor by the heat exchanger is reused.
- Additionally, the water from the depths and the surface are both sucked into the system.10.
- An open cycle OTEC system generates electricity by using surface water directly.
- a) Very Hot b) Very Warm c) Very Cool d) Very Icy The warm water at the surface of the ocean is used in open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion, which produces electricity.
View Answer Answer: b Explanation: First, the warm water is pumped into the container with the low pressure, and then the temperature is raised to a boil.11. The low pressure turbine that is connected to the electrical generator is sometimes driven by the steam in certain circumstances.
a) True b) False The low pressure turbine that is connected to the electrical generator is sometimes driven by the steam in some configurations. View Answer Answer: an Explanation: 12. The salts, the aluminum, the copper, and the silver are the elements that are carried away by the steam. View Answer Answer: a When the salts and other impurities are heated up and then left in the container at a low pressure, the steam pushes the salts and other impurities out of the water, leaving behind clean and fresh water.13.
The open cycle system generates water as a byproduct. the water is either: a) Desalinated; b) Impure; c) Contaminated; d) Chlorinated View Answer Answer: a Explanation: The open cycle system generates fresh water in addition to desalinated water. It may be consumed, as well as used for irrigation and farming purposes.14.
In the method, sea water is forced into a vacuum chamber before being rapidly evaporated. a) System with a closed cycle b) System with an open cycle c) Hybrid OTEC d) System with neither a closed nor an open cycle The seawater is drawn into the vacuum chamber of the hybrid OTEC technique, where it is flash evaporated in a manner analogous to the open cycle system.
View Answer 15. Depending on the specific implementation, a technology can be used to generate electricity from a hydroelectric turbine. a) Closed cycle; b) Open cycle; c) Hybrid system; d) Steam lift pump Take a look at the answer Take a look at the answer d Explanation: the steam lift pump technology can generate electricity from a hydroelectric turbine either before or after the pump is utilized depending on the embodiment.
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What is ocean thermal energy advantages and disadvantages?
The following is a table that compares the benefits and drawbacks of using ocean thermal energy:
|Ocean Thermal Energy is an instance of renewable energy||The expense of fitting the device and continuance of the power plant is high.|
|It can be utilised continuously for 24 hours a day throughout the year with a bit of ongoing cost.||It causes disruptions in aquatic and marine life.|
|It creates electricity without the discharge of greenhouse gases.||A constant supply of cold and warm water is needed. So the plant can be built in only appropriate for tropical areas.|
|Different from other kinds of energy, the output of OTEC shows little daily or seasonal variation.||Conversion efficiency is very low about 3-4% because of small temperatures in between the deep water and surface water.|
Is Ocean Thermal Energy Efficient?
Abstract Because it takes advantage of the temperature difference that exists between the surface of the ocean and the depths of the ocean, which is only slightly higher than 20 degrees Celsius in tropical waters, an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power system can achieve a maximum possible Carnot thermal efficiency of about 7%.
- In a typical OTEC electrical power plant with a capacity of several megawatts, the overall efficiency of the plant, including everything from the processing of seawater to the generation of net electrical power, is somewhere about 2%.
- Because the remainder of the water temperature gradient is required for heat transfer and mass flow in order to maintain economically viable heat exchanger and seawater pump size, only approximately half of it can be directly harvested and used across the power cycle.
Pumping seawater, providing electricity to auxiliary systems, and covering losses in power transmission take up around one third of the gross amount of power generated. The concept of efficiency in relation to the OTEC power cycle is discussed in this work.
- OTEC offers a tremendous amount of untapped potential as a clean, renewable, and base-load source of power for many countries, territories, and states that are located in close proximity to tropical oceans.
- It is anticipated that as OTEC technology develops, massive floating OTEC plants will become capable of producing energy carriers or synthetic fuels that can then be transported to energy consumers.
The purpose of this study is to offer a current evaluation of the numerous components that are employed by one OTEC power cycle, their individual efficiencies, and their contribution to the overall economics of an OTEC power plant. In order for OTEC to become a resource that can support economic activity, it is essential to have a comprehensive understanding of the efficiency losses, the power load, and the possible areas for improvement.
This document offers recommendations for the design of the key components of the OTEC plant and provides instructions for optimizing efficiency in such a way that high-quality electricity may be delivered to the utility at rates that are competitive. The final point to make is that the findings of a parametric analysis of OTEC size expressed in terms of megawatts generated demonstrate the potential for increased efficiency with large-scale OTEC power production plants.I.
The Opening Statements The need for energy on a global scale is growing at a fast rate. The world’s populations are getting larger, and people are getting better off, which is putting a strain on the energy resources that are already available. At the same time, it is getting increasingly difficult to locate deposits of hydrocarbons.
- The safety of energy sources and the preservation of the environment are becoming more pressing issues on a worldwide scale.
- It is imperative that the world work toward the development and commercialization of renewable technology before the availability of existing resources dwindles.
- For example, wind energy has been utilized for hundreds of years, but it was eclipsed during the Industrial Revolution by coal and oil as the primary sources of energy.
However, throughout the course of the last ten years, wind power has experienced explosive expansion as a source of energy (2009 US DOE). Solar and wind energy have the economic benefit of free “fuel,” but they also have the drawback of being intermittent and changeable as a result of the nature of the “fuel” source.
- Ocean thermal energy enjoys the benefit of the large thermal storage of ocean waters and can therefore provide a base-load source of electricity to coastal areas in tropical waters and energy carriers to energy consumers.
- Since ocean waters have such a large thermal storage capacity, ocean thermal energy has the potential to provide energy carriers to energy consumers.
The large OTEC resource may be seen in Figure 1, which is a map of the planet. This information is not offered in any other format than PDF.
How does ocean thermal energy affect the environment?
Advantages of OTEC – OTEC has a number of advantages, the most important of which are as follows: OTEC systems are extremely advantageous for island locations that have a limited amount of fresh water since they create both power and potable water at the same time.
- It makes use of naturally occurring resources that are regenerative and free of contaminants.
- In order to create power, fossil fuels are being phased out and replaced by warm water from the ocean’s top and cold water from deeper in the ocean.
- OTEC facilities do not contribute to environmental degradation by emitting carbon dioxide emissions or any other compounds that are harmful to the atmosphere.
It contributes to lessening the nation’s reliance on fossil fuels that are brought in from outside the country.
What are the main advantages of OTEC system?
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, also known as OTEC, is a method for generating electricity that takes advantage of temperature differences between the upper surface layer and deeper layers (800–1000 m) of the ocean. OTEC plants typically run with temperature differences of approximately 20 degrees Celsius or higher.
- The ability of OTEC to not only supply energy in a steady (non-intermittent) manner but also to offer cooling without the need of electric power is one of the many benefits of using this technology.
- Because of the relatively minor temperature differential, the technological difficulty is to move very large quantities of water while minimizing the amount of pressure lost.
In order to do this, a hostile and corrosive environment is required to be inhabited by huge seawater pumps, massive piping systems, and large cold water pipelines. All of these components must operate virtually continuously. OTEC appears to be especially appropriate and economically feasible for distant islands located in tropical waters where generating may be integrated with other activities such as e.g.
- as well as the generation of potable water and air-conditioning.
- Recent research has shown that ocean thermal energy conversion might potentially provide the whole power generating capacity of the world’s oceans, without having any effect on the temperature distribution of the oceans.
- The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) has compiled a series of briefs addressing the four primary types of ocean energy technologies, which are ocean thermal, tidal, wave, and salinity gradient energy.
This particular short is a part of that series. The several technological summaries that have come before it have shed light on a diverse array of renewable energy options. Each brief provides an overview of the many technical issues, prices, market potential, and barriers, as well as recommendations for policymakers regarding how to expedite the transition to renewable energy sources.
Why is OTEC not currently used?
Why is OTEC not being utilized at the moment? It is quite pricey due to the fact that it is still in the testing phase.
What is OTEC application?
Application of the OTEC System Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) devices can be applied to or utilized in a wide variety of contexts. In addition to assisting in the cultivation of crops and the extraction of minerals, OTEC may also be used to produce power, desalinate water, facilitate deep-water mariculture, provide refrigeration and air conditioning, and support deep-water aquaculture.
What is the basic principle of OTEC system?
The underlying logic behind it OTEC makes advantage of the warm surface water of the ocean, which has a temperature of around 25 degrees Celsius, to evaporate a working fluid that has a low boiling point, such as ammonia. This allows the fluid to be vaporized more quickly.
How do OTEC systems work?
The OTEC Process An OTEC power plant generates electricity by drawing in warm water from the ocean’s surface and using it to turn a “working fluid” like ammonia or propane into a gas. This process is known as the OTEC. These liquids have a low temperature at which they boil, which, when changed into gas, pushes the steam into pressurized shafts that are then utilized to spin turbines.
- This is how energy is generated.
- The generator is subsequently driven by the turbines, which results in the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.
- It’s possible that you’re familiar with this component from the heat Rankin Cycle, which is the foundation for the creation of electricity by modern methods like biomass, nuclear, and fossil fuels.
In order to recommence the process, the gas must first be cooled and turned back into a liquid state by use of a lengthy conduit that extends to the depths of the ocean, where extremely cold water is located. Unfortunately, the steam that is created by the OTEC process does not transport a significant amount of energy since the ocean water can only heat the working fluid by roughly 20 degrees Celsius.
However, because the resource, which is ocean water, is plentiful, an OTEC power station may capture a significant portion of the energy it generates by relying on the vast quantities of hot and cold water it needed to function, which helps to mitigate the inefficiency issue to some extent. Utilization of OTEC technology can result in the production of seawater district cooling (SDC).
This is the point at which the plumbing begins to take in deep water, which is often chilly. Instead of relying on a significant amount of electricity and chemicals like most existing systems do, it makes use of the cold water to power the district air conditioning system.
What is the minimum requirement to operate the OTEC?
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) takes use of the 20-degree differential in temperature that may be observed between the surface and the temperature of the ocean.
How much thermal energy is in the ocean?
Whatever is buried must eventually surface. You can see in the middle of the picture that as cold, dense, salty water sinks at higher latitudes, it forces deeper water to move closer to the surface at lower latitudes, as can be seen in the centre of the figure.
The process in which water from the depths of the ocean rises to the surface is absolutely necessary for marine life. These fluids convey to the surface of the ocean dissolved carbon dioxide and the minerals that are required for the tiny photosynthetic phytoplankton that occupy the top daylight layer of the ocean.
These waters originate from the ocean floor. These organisms serve as the foundation of the food web that supports virtually all life in marine environments. Because phytoplankton are responsible for over half of all photosynthesis that occurs on Earth, we may infer that they play a key role in the carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing processes.
- In addition to the crucial role it plays in energy transfer, the thermohaline-driven MOC’s capacity to transport nutrients also plays a vital role.
- Since the beginning of recorded history, every one of these occurrences has had a role in the history of the climate on Earth.
- The remaining modules in this ACS Climate Science Toolkit are centered on the topic of how the outward radiative transfer of thermal IR radiation via greenhouse gases has helped to keep the Earth’s energy balance at a temperature that is conducive to the growth of abundant life both on land and in the ocean.
The energy balance has been thrown off recently as a consequence of the addition of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Because the globe is taking in more energy than it is losing, the temperature is rising. Since 1950, there has been an increase of around 0.6 K in the average temperature at the surface.
It is impossible for all of the extra energy to have remained at the top or to have warmed the atmosphere alone; the thermal energy must have also been acquired by the ocean floor. The values presented in this graphic are generated from the temperature, salinity, and density of the ocean as a function of depth.
[Figure] In order to calculate the heat capacity of the seawater at each level, the density and salinity of the water are taken into account. This allows the temperature readings to be translated into energy units. In the sidebar, you will find a brief description as well as a picture of the apparatus that was used to gather this data.
- The diagram illustrates the percentage of the ocean’s total energy that is located below 700 meters, as well as the total amount of energy contained in the upper 2000 meters of the ocean.
- According to the figure, the amount of thermal energy gained by the ocean throughout the course of the 55-year measuring period is about 24 x 10 22 J in the 0-2000 m layer.
A major portion of the energy is transferred from the surface to seas of intermediate depth, as shown by the fact that about 30 percent of this total, or 7 x 1022 J, is located in the lower 700-2000 m region. Although there is a lack of information on the deeper layers of the abyss, it appears that these waters have obtained just a small percentage of what the higher layers have.
- Since the current in the deep water is quite sluggish, as was just seen, not a significant portion of the warmed water from the top layers has yet made its way to the ocean floor.
- From 1955 to 2010, the upper layers of the ocean saw a warming of around 0.09 degrees Celsius, when averaged over the whole 0-2000 meter layer, and approximately 0.18 degrees Celsius, when averaged over just the higher, warmer 0-700 meter layer.
The volume of the oceans increases as their temperature rises. The extension of their territory is restricted by the continental barriers, which results in a rise in the level of the sea. During the period between 1955 and 2010, the thermosteric effect caused an average of a little more than 0.5 mm each year, which corresponds to around 3 centimeters.
In addition, throughout this time period, the melting of glaciers, snow cover, and land ice sheets contributed an additional about 10 centimeters to the overall rise in sea level. This picture is helpful in putting into context the importance that the warming ocean plays in climate research. A computation using only the information on the reverse of the envelope might provide further context.
Think about the amount of heat that was added to the ocean over the period of 20 years, from 1990 to 2010, when about 14 x 1022 J was injected. This energy equates to an absorbed energy flow (watts) of (14 10 22 J)/(6.3 10 8 s), which equals 2.2 10 14 W.
Since twenty years is approximately 6.3 10 8 seconds, this energy is equivalent to an absorbed energy flux. This is solely the limit for the oceans, and it is lower than the previous one since it does not cover the deep ocean. If we make the assumption that the energy that has been measured accounts for 90% of the total energy on Earth, then we can calculate the flow for the entire globe as (2.2 10 14 W)/0.9 2.4 10 14 W.
Since the surface area of the Earth is approximately 5.1 x 1014 meters squared, the absorbed flux per unit area is calculated as 2.4 x 1014 watts divided by 5.1 x 1014 meters squared, which is 0.5 watts per square meter. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimated in 2007 that the net radiative forcing was around 1.5 Wm 2.